| Irish story: |
Imigrated to US mostly; Great imigration started in 1870, after the Potato famines (in 1845). They were share croppers (agriculteurs sur des terres louées) or tenant farmers, so they fled dire conditions.
The asylumn policy of the US was generous until 1821, when the Gates cloesed, due to xenophobia and protectionism.
Ellis Island was the processinf point of entry of all emigrants from Europe.
Overcrowding (surpopulation) in slums (taudis, guettos) was the major problem.
the author: J. Joyce (1882-1941) is Irish, expatriate writer (one of the most influential writers of the XXth century).
the text: (publication: 1914): Short story about a young woman of nineteen, waiting to live home. She's orphan.
Eveline is the main character. She has to replace her mother, died, as the family's caretaker.
The father is harsh, verbally violent, mean, probably due to alcohol. He's greedy, and Eveline has a bleak life. She's nostalgic.
+weight of religion
A clue of her paralysis, passivity: the cripple.
Motif of death: the mother probably died of bad health or exhaustion (épuisement). Her environment is perverted by death.
Symbol of dust: empty house, absence of life (= Eveline wants to go to Buenos Ayres "good air, clean air".
Franck must be deceptive, a seducer.
where on earth?!: où diantre?!
beside: à côté de / besides: en outre
beloved: bien aimée
a graduate: un diplômé
an alumni: un ancien élève
to starve: mourir de faim
bad crops: mauvaises récoltes
off Manhattan: au large de Manhattan
to flee: fuir
dire conditions: affreuses conditions
meager wages: des salaires transparents, inexistants
to squander: dépenser
the cripple: l'infirme
to convey: traduire, faire passer
a clue: un indice
deceptive: trompeur (to have the gift of the gab: être un beau parleur)
to be fulfilled: être accompli
to embellish: embellir
bleak: terne, sans joie
le texte: http://www.readprint.com/work-880/James-Joyce